Askill 6

9.1- Made first buffer easily. Done. 

9.2- Liked this one because I compared 9.1 and 9.2 together. 

9.3- Got to step 6 but couldn’t complete the tutorial because I couldn’t find the travel settings group button. I looked it up on google and the search bar on GIS. 

9.4- I got all the little green dots on the screen. (INCOMPLETE)

9.5- I liked changing the names and colors of the dots. I was able to do this one. 


10.1- Done. Saw the map shift colors and got different dimensions. 

10.2- Tried. Got done with the first part then couldn’t find the correct layer to symbolize. I tried every layer but couldn’t find one layer with all of the correct things to put in.

10.3- I tried entering the code into the raster calculator and double checked it but it didn’t work. I just entered the names and numbers, but it didn’t really work for the rest of the tutorial. So I just moved on to chapter 11. 


11.1- I liked playing with the different keys and changing the layout of the map. 

11.2- Followed the book but some of my map was cut off. Probably a small mistake I made. But I was able to finish this tutorial. 

11.3- Favorite tutorial yet. Made the trees. 

11.4- The first part of this looked cool with the little dots making up the buildings. I also liked creating the bridge. 

11.5- Done. Interesting to see the different layers in both buildings. 

11.6- Struggled a little bit but finished. I liked looking at the street view. 

11.7- Making the short animation was really cool because you got a mini tour of the city. 


Shaw Week 6

Chapter 9

9.1: This was just using the clustering tool, very easy.

9.2: The first half of the tutorial was very straightforward and easy but when using the spatial tool I was having trouble using the output field.

9.3: I had the same issues as 9.2, the spatial tool was hard to navigate, I am not sure if updating the software will fix it or not.

9.4: This part was very similar to the rest of the chapter with just changing the map to be able to read it better.

9.5: This part was very straight forward, just changing the symbols names and indicators.

Chapter 10

10.1: This was the longest tutorial of the chapter but it was very easy to follow after the first part which I had difficulty with. This section does involve a few new tools.

10.2: This tutorial was very easy, just introducing new tools to get familiar with. I am not super familiar with the singular tool or clustering tool yet but these sections have definitely helped.

10.3: This section proved to be very long and gave me some difficulty with the coding. I could not figure out how to connect the raster calculator to everything else.

Chapter 11

11.1: This tutorial introduced the 3d view for the map, was very short and easy to follow. 

11.2: This tutorial is very easy to follow. It is very similar to 11.1. 

11.3: The use of the 3d features are very cool. The section was again very similar to the last two. 

11.4: This section was cool building things but my outcome did not look like the books so I am sure something went wrong.

11.5: The slider tool on this tutorial was very interesting, this was a very interesting tutorial to use. 

11.6: The street 3d view was very interesting and I enjoyed doing it.

11.7: This section tied the chapter together, it was definitely hard at first but I learned a lot. 


Howard Week 6

9-1 : I was able to follow this tutorial perfectly fine, but I’m not really sure what it means.

9-2: Same as the previous tutorial.

9-3: I got a couple error messages when I tried right click UseRate and clicked Calculate Field. I’m assuming it’s because I typed in the expression wrong, maybe I put spaces when I shouldn’t have. I believe this inhibited me from making a scatterplot, as when I typed in the X and Y axis fields, there was no button to apply or even in the Edit tab i wasn’t able to save. So I was unable to completely finish the project.

9-4: I thought this tutorial was really interesting. The lines connecting pools and demand points are a fun way of visualizing on a map.

9-5: I liked the background of this tutorial. Mapping crimes, especially violent ones, are really important and its cool to see in real time how you can define the data to make it more understandable.

10-1: I don’t have “LandUse_Pgh” in my files, only “LandUse_Pgh.tif”. So, I have the land use for a good distance around pittsburgh instead of just the city itself. Actually, another time I tried to find it in the geoprocessing pane it was there. Sometimes files just don’t show up for me. I also don’t have NED_Pittsburgh, just NED. In the end, my tutorial looks just like the one from the book, except the Pittsburgh outline disappeared somewhere along the way and everything I did to the map didn’t just go inside the Pittsburgh limits.

10-2: I thought that this tutorial was interesting. Learning how to make a heat map seems pretty cool.

10-3: This tutorial was really long for me. I was able to do it all though, except for the fact that the poverty index model goes outside the Pittsburgh borders. Not sure why that happens to me so much. This was really complicated but seems useful.

11-1: It was fun playing around on this tutorial. The exploration was interesting.

11-2: Similar to the last tutorial.

11-3: I don’t see the “Get Z From View” button. I also don’t have the cute trees the book has but it is a fun tool to know.

11-4: This tutorial was also interesting to do. Creating the buildings out of thin air was cool. I definitely messed up somewhere along the way though because I didn’t get the proper sightline at the end.

11-5: Not too sure how many uses these tools have, other than scale I guess.

11-6:  This tutorial was super fun. The end product, the Smithfield street 3D, was cool to explore and the little planters, trash cans, and fire hydrants were cute.

11-7:Ok this one was cool. This chapter in general showed a lot of little things to make the viewing and creating experience more fun. It is taking a very long time to export the movie though which is a little annoying since it is only a draft and not that long in length.

Schtucka week 6

9.1 – I thought we had learned how to use the buffer tool before, maybe I just remember reading about it or just seeing it in a different chapter’s tutorial. 

9.2 – I think this section is really cool. It’s really helpful to be able to select within a buffer to help narrow down data more. 

  • I don’t think i was able to do the section section of this tutorial properly, I was not able to find the output fields or merge rule part of the spatial join tool, I did my best to find what seemed equivalent but it does not look right 

9.3 – My Polygons_Tags_Pop attribute able did not have a name section, so I did what I could following it but my stuff is a little wanky. 

9.4 – This section was the easiest to do because the book actually was following along nicely with the software. I also think it is cool that we can locate facilities so easily.

9.5 –  I think knowing how to analyze and use clusters will be very helpful in the future of my GIS career.

10.1 – I really enjoyed this section, it’s cool to be able to create stereotypical features I used to think of when I thought about mapping. 

10.2 – When I ran my symbology pane for heart attack density it didn’t stay within the area and went to the whole map and I am not sure why.

10.3 – I was not able to get multiple parts of this section to work, and the sections followed off of each other so I was not able to complete the entire section. 

  • My FHHChildren field was not able to be made correctly
  • I could not calculate ZFHHCHld = (!FHHChildren! – 45.2) / 66.8 because it said FHHChildren did not exist 
  • the kernel density tool would not drag into multiple areas on my screen, and because of that I was not able to complete the rest of this section

11.1 – This section was fun to play around with, 3d renditions are really cool and I’m excited to work with them now 

11.2 – I don’t really understand the difference between local view and global view. 

  • I followed the directions for the symbology and it didn’t look the same

11.3 – I think the trees are cute and I will like putting 3d objects in later projects

11.4 – This section was challenging in a good way, it was rewarding to see my buildings pop up. 

11.5 – Using scale is more simple than I thought it would be.

11.6 – Creating the building was interesting, but I feel like turning on a street layer just to see planters was sort of pointless. 

11.7 – This section was the most interesting from the book – I had no clue GIS could be used for things like this.

Gassert, week 5

NOTE: internet was not being nice to me when I uploaded this, so there are no pictures of progress right now. I will add those ASAP when BishopNet agrees with me


Gassert week 5




4.1: Just an intro to the geodatabase files. Relatively easy to follow along with this.


4.2: Still learning how to use the contents panes correctly. If you make a mistake, it’s very difficult to try and go back to fix it. The book did not match up with the software, making the calculations wrong.


4.3: “Attribute queries” that label what and when of something, time/date/day, and people. The SQL button is used to show the criteria selected.


4.4: Intro to the aggregation of the data with spatial joints. I was able to figure this out pretty easy.


4.5: We sort of did this in the week 4 tutorials, adding shapes to show data. This was familiar.


4.6: This also felt similar to an earlier tutorial from week 4. Was easier to do this now that I recognized the instructions and the software.


Ch. 5


5.1: Used coordinates to look at a map projection. I didn’t know that the lines on this kind of map was called a graticule.


5.2: Used similar setup to look at a map of the US rather than the whole world. 


5.3: Sort of similar to the previous two examples, except this was more specific to a smaller area.


5.4: Showed how to use vector data. Showed how to utilize X,Y coordinates and how to add it to the map.


5.5: Calculating stuff is not my strongsuit. I decided to try and come back to this and 5.6 later.


5.6: I did come back to this and 5.5 and my brain stopped working.




6.1: Used the “pairwise dissolve tool” to generate groups. 


6.2: Used the clip tool to select a specific area. Pretty self explanatory.


6.3: Not sure if there was a book discrepancy, but this didn’t work right. There was an error message (which others seemed to encounter too).


6.4: Used append tool to merge data


6.5: Showed more depth to the merge data part and how it can be used to show streets in divisions.


6.6: Merged data from tables. Fairly quick and simple.


6.7: Used the intersection tool. Pretty easy to follow along on the application.


Ch. 7


7.1: This shows how to edit features and shapes on a map. I feel like this could have been in an earlier tutorial rather than now. I wish I had this knowledge a week or two ago.


7.2: Same as 7.1, I wish I knew how to create feature classes myself sooner in more straightforward words.


7.3: This took a hot minute to load for me, but it eventually worked. 


7.4: REALLY didn’t want to load. I think the connection was bad today or something. I’d like to come back and try it again to see if it works on a day it’s not storming.


Ch. 8


8.1: Seeing this chapter was only two sections was so relieving. The book tells you what tool does what and why it’s there, which I wish the book did way before now. This gave details about how to use geocoding with zip codes.


8.2: This made slightly less sense than 8.1, but I figured out that it wants me to use geocoding for street addresses.

Benes, Week 6

Chapter 9: 

  • 9.1– Straightforward. I understood the applications. 
  • 9.2– Pretty easy and straightforward, similar to the 9.1 application. 
  • 9.3– In this tutorial I was having trouble changing the color of the polygons to the chips colors. I ended up changing them to a blue variation but didn’t understand where to find the needed color scheme. Once I got the calculate field in the polygon table I kept getting an error message and I don’t know what was going wrong. I couldn’t figure out how to continue once I got the error message. 
  • 9.4– Easy tutorial. I understood the steps and application. 
  • 9.5– I understood the contents of this tutorial. 

Chapter 10: 

  • 10.1– Straightforward and easy to understand. 
  • 10.2– When I put the symbology information in my map it had different colors than the book stated. This tutorial wasn’t too bad once I found where certain tools and applications were. 
  • 10.3– Straightforward until. I got confused once I had to put in the expressions for the raster calculator. Therefore, I had to stop because I got confused and couldn’t figure out how to continue.

Chapter 11: 

  • 11.1– This tutorial was really cool to see the 3D dimensions and how to move the map in different ways. 
  • 11.2– This was straightforward and I understood the process. It was interesting to see different layer colors. 
  • 11.3– The create features tool wasn’t working and I wasn’t sure what was happening. Because of this I wasn’t able to fully complete the section. 
  • 11.4–  Towards the end I couldn’t find the bridges in the created features. I was able to finish the tutorial but by the end portion my line of sight wouldn’t become 3D and I couldn’t figure out how to change that. 
  • 11.5– This tutorial went smoothly and was really cool to see the scaling aspect. 
  • 11.6– This tutorial was going smoothly until I got the symbology pane. I was struggling to find this information. I was able to complete the rest of the tutorial. 
  • 11.7– This was easy to understand and  really cool to see the animations. 

Delaware Data

  • Survey– This is a shape file that combines data from the recorder’s office and the map department. It was stated that the points on the map illustrate the survey plats.
  • MSAG– This data is known as the master street address guide. This data illustrates the 28 different political jurisdictions. This is used to find and analyze boundaries. 
  • Parcel– This is data for the cadastral parcel lines in Delaware. These are represented by polygons. 
  • Precinct– This data illustrates the voting precincts that are compiled by the county auditor’s office. Data is updated as needed. 
  • Condo– This data shows all the condominiums in Delaware that are illustrated by polygons.
  • Address Point– This data has all the certified addresses in Delaware. This data helps with emergency response, accident reporting and more. 
  • Annexation– This is the annexation and conforming boundaries. This data goes back from 1853. 
  • Tax District– This data shows all the tax districts that are determined by the Auditor’s Real Estate Office. Data is updated on a need basis and published monthly.  
  • GPS– This file has data from 1991-1997 for the GPS monuments. 
  • School District– This data shows the school districts in Delaware. The data comes from the Delaware County Auditor parcel records.
  • Zip Code– This shape file has all the zip codes in Delaware County. This shape file is published monthly to provide up to date information. 
  • Municipality– This is all of the municipalities in Delaware County. 
  • Subdivision– This data contains subdivisions and condos that are in Delaware County. Data is published monthly and updated daily. 
  • Building Outline 2021– This data has all of the building structures and was updated in 2021 and again in April 2023. 
  • Delaware County E911 Data– This data is to help with the emergency response and accident reporting for Delaware County. This data shows the coordinates in relations to 911 agencies. 
  • Township– This data is the 19 different townships that are in Delaware which are updated on a need-basis. 
  • Recorded Document– This data is compiled of various information from surveys to boundaries and housing classification. This data is published monthly with weekly changes.
  • Farm Lots– This shows all the farm lots for the US Military and the Virginia Military Survey Districts. 
  • PLSS– This is the Public Land Survey System which shows the US Military and Virginia Military Survey Districts and certain boundaries. 
  • Dedicated ROW– This data has the right of way information within Delaware County.
  • Hydrology– This data shows the major waterways in Delaware County.

Roberts Week 6

Chapter 9

9-1 This tutorial was fairly simple and straightforward. I was glad that I was successfully able to add the buffers and tables in this tutorial since I had issues with it in some of the previous tutorials.

9-2 I had no issues with the first half of the tutorial. I think the multiple ring buffers were easy to apply and seemed to cut down the amount of work you’d have to do to create multiple buffers of varying distances from the same subject. However, when using the Spatial Join tool I was unable to find the ‘output fields’ option, which meant the results of running the tool were not what I was supposed to get.

9-3 Once again, the first half of the tutorial went smoothly but I ended up stuck at the same point as in tutorial 9-2. I retried several times to use the Spatial Join tools, following the instructions on the book, but I was never provided with an option to ‘output fields’ and therefore also not a ‘merge rule’ setting. I compared my screen to ones online and mine was missing an entire input box, which was supposed to be located under the fields category.

9-4 This tutorial went pretty quickly and was easy to understand the process of. The end results look professional and clean, so I could see it being used for many different types of projects.

9-5 I was able to do this tutorial without many issues. I think the clusters and labeling groups is pretty similar to processes that were in previous tutorials. It also seems like it could be a pretty good tool to know how to use in the future.

Chapter 10

10-1 This tutorial was lengthy but easy for me to understand, despite the initial tutorial screen being a bit overwhelming at first. I was able to follow along all the different parts and think that the book did a great job of teaching how to use many different tools and visual effects in a singular tutorial.

10-2 Similar to 10-1, I think this tutorial was fairly easy to follow. I did get a little lost with the purpose of some of these tools or what they meant, but I’m sure that I’d be able to gain understanding by looking through the tutorial again.

10-3 I encountered one issue when doing the ‘calculate field’ option for the PittsburghBlkGroups table, as it sent me a warning sign after I ran it and left the ZFHHChld column as all ‘null’. I believe it may have been an issue with entering the information below the Fields List, but I’m not sure how I’d fix it. However, this didn’t seem to impact the rest of this tutorial because I was able to follow the rest of the directions smoothly. I think it was a good introduction to the complex ModeBuilder tool, which seems very useful.

Chapter 11

11-1 This tutorial helped me learn how to navigate the map in a 3-D view, which was really neat to look at. It was a fairly short and simple tutorial.

11-2 I also didn’t run into any major issues for this tutorial. Once again I find the 3-D maps entertaining, and this one only being a manipulable slice of land was fun to work with.

11-3 This tutorial was also short and simple. The ability to add 3-D features is both cool and useful, along with being relatively simple to implement. I could see using this for planning placement of objects or for visualization purposes on the map.

11-4 This tutorial took a bit longer than the other ones from chapter 11, but it also held a lot of information about using and manipulating rasters and 3-D models of buildings. It was very cool to see the model build itself up and the city unfold from a dataset. I didn’t have any major issues or concerns when completing this tutorial.

11-5 I didn’t have any issues with this tutorial and was able to understand it pretty well. I think the slider feature to navigate between floors was probably my favorite feature highlighted in this tutorial, but I can see how visually interesting and useful all the other parts of this tutorial are too.

11-6 The only issue I had with this tutorial was that my building was stuck appearing very short (it looked like the roof was the first and only floor) despite typing in the settings exactly as the book said. Everything else both appeared and functioned properly and the building manipulation features are pretty interesting. Before doing this chapter I was unaware that ArcGIS had this many options for building appearance and placement.

11-7 The animation and movie feature is very cool- it’s something that I never would have expected to be able to do directly in the GIS program. The animation was also surprisingly smooth between frames (I was expecting a slideshow) and very easy to create.

Andisman, Week 5

Chapter 4: File Geodatabases

4.1 + 4.2

  • File geodatabase: Esri’s simplified database for storing geospatial data, including features, classes, and raster datasets for single users for small groups
  • In ArcGIS, data management and processing in a file geodatabase is done through the Catalog pane -> tools -> user interface
  • They have no practical limits for numbers and sizes of feature classes or raster datasets stored in them, and are optimized for data processing and storage in Arc. They also allow data tables to be related and joined 
  • Note: Attribute, Field, Variable, and Column are interchangeable names for the columns of data tables
  • Note: Record, Row, and Observation are interchangeable names for the rows in a data table
  • Shapefile: A spatial data format for a single point, line or polygon layer. 
  • Connect a data folder through the catalog pane -> folders -> right click -> add folder connection
  • Shapefiles need to be converted to a feature class and stored in a geodatabase because it doesn’t support advanced capabilities. Do so with the export features tool in the geoprocessing group in the analysis tab
  • Deleting tables/feature classes from a file geodatabase is permanent, but removing a layer from the Contents pane removes it only from the map and leaves the feature class in a file geodatabase
  • Fields in a data table in gray font are essential and cannot be modified
  • Joining tables requires each table to have an attribute with matching values stored with the same data type

4.2 Note: A bug in 4.2 with ‘Tracts’ I think? Something weird going on here, got through as far as I could, but data was not showing up and it would not let me get past running the calculation of the sum of fields for PopYouth.


  • Attribute queries are based on SQL
  • A simple criterion has the following form: 

attribute  name <logical operator> attribute value

  • The attribute name can be any column heading or field name in the attribute table, and several logical operators are “ =, >, <, =>, =<”. The attribute table specifies what you’re looking for. For example: the following simple criterion selects all cries that are robberies where robbery is a value of the crime attribute:    Crime = ‘Robbery’ 
  • Numeric fields do not need quotation marks like text does
  • OR and AND can also be used to select and specify criteria
  • The use of parentheses, like in algebraic expressions, is essential because logical expressions are run one pair at a time for simple expressions, generally working from right to left, but with certain logical operators going first, such as AND being run before OR. This can result in incorrect information unless you use parentheses to control the run order
  • Crime analysis use three kinds of attribute queries: ‘What and when”, specific when such as time of day, and specific who or what or how 
  • Queries for event locations, such as crimes, almost always use date-range criteria
  • The ‘qry’ prefix is the standard prefix for database inquiries


  • Spatial join tool was easy 🙂


  • The centroid pf a polygon is the arithmetic mean of all points within the polygon. If you want all center points to lie within their polygons, the remedy in ArcGIS is to use central points instead of centroids


  • Sometimes a data table has a field name that uses a code that, by itself, isn’t easily understood. Therefore, you need a code table with all the codes in one field, along with their descriptions in the second field. This join is called a one-to-many
  • Use the Create Table tool

Chapter 5 Spatial Data


  • Geographic coordinate systems use latitude and longitude coordinates gor locations on the surface of the earth, whereas projected coordinate systems use a mathematical transformation from an ellipsoid or a sphere to a flat surface and a two dimensional coordinate
  • Geographic coordinates are angles calculated from the intersection of the prime meridian and the equator. 
  • Longitude measures east – west and ranges from 0 to 180 degrees, latitude measures north and south and ranges from 0 to 90 degrees
  • The network of lines on the map os called a graticule and has 30 degree intervals east – west and north – south
  • The Robinson World projection is the most accurate at the mod latitudes in the N and S hemispheres where most people live, and minimizes distortions 


  • When working with projections, you can either get accurate shapes/angles or accurate areas, but not both at the same time
  • As a rule, use projections that give an accurate area (even if it causes some distortion in shape or direction), such as the Albers Equal Area or the Cylindrical Equal Area projection. Albers is the standard for the US Geological Survey and the US Census Bureau


  • For medium and large scale maps, use localized projection coordinate systems tuned for the study data, that have little/minimal distortion
  • This tutorial set the projected coordinate system (state plane) for a local map by adding the first layer to the map and specified the display units
  • The first step to using the State Plane coordinate system is to look up the correct zone for your area and the specific projected coordinate system tailored to your study area
  • You can set the default coordinate system using the Choose Spatial Reference option, regardless of what layers you add to it


  • A shapefile consists of at least three files with the following extensions: .shp, .dbf, or .shx
  • Shp file stores the geometry of features, dbf file stores the attribute table, and shx file stores an inde of the spatial geometry
  • X = longitude; Y = latitude
  • KML file is the file format used to display geographic data in many mapping applications, is an international standard, and maintained by the Open Geospatial Consortium
  • KML files can be converted into a feature class by inputting the KML in the KML to Layer Tool, outputting to the data file, and then naming the  new data file.


  • Discrepancy with the data we have to download from the internet compared to what is written in the book for Tutorial 5-5. Column JK written in the book for the “male transport to work via bicycles” is actually column EG or code S0801_C02_011E on the spreadsheet. Column SE in the book for “female transport to work via bicycles” is actually Column IQ on the spreadsheet.
  • Lots of free data is available to download from the US Census Bureau website
  • Using Topographically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing shapefile (TIGER)


  • You can download data from many government websites such as the USGS National Map Viewer  or, or USDA, DOC, NOAA, US Census Bureau, DOI, EPA, NASA, ArcGIS Living Atlas of the World
  • This chapter involved searching for and adding a land use raster layer from ArcGIS Atlas
  • In ArcGISPro, you can add data from the atlas using Catalog Pane -> Portal -> Living Atlas (or the Add Data button)
  • Rasters are large files
  • If you want to extract a subset of data, use the Extract by Mask tool

Chapter 6 Geoprocessing


  • Geoprocessing is a framework and set of tools for processing geographic data. Generally, it must be used to build study areas in GIS and perform tasks. 
  • This section focused on dissolving features, which retains the outer boundary lines bt removes interior lines from the block groups
  • The Pairwise Dissolve tool can aggregate block group attributes using statistics such as sum, mean, and count. The PwD Tool needs data as the Dissolve Field. For example ‘Name’


  • This section worked through extracting and clipping features for a study region when there were more features than needed by first creating a single polygon, using the new polygon and select by location to create features of block groups in the study area only, and then use the Clip Tool


  • This section merged several adjacent water features to build oe water feature as a single layer by using the Merge Geoprocessing Tool


  • The Append Tool adds features to an existing feature class, considering that both have the same attributes, or the same schema
  • The schema is the table (field) structure. This allows you to choose the option for matching the input table’s schema to the target table’s schema


  • The Pairwise Intersect Tool creates a feature class combining all the features and attributes of two input (and overlaying) feature classes, like fire companies and streets
  • The Intersect Tool excluses any parts of two or more input layers that don’t overlay each other
  • Studying the attribute tables of each feature class familiarizes you with the attributes before you intersect features
  • After intersecting features, you can go through the attribute table to create a summary with the Summary Statistics Tool


  • The Union Tool overlays the geometry and attributes of two input polygon layers to generate a new output polygon layer. This can be useful for things like urban planning, allowing you to calculate things like land use type
  • The Calculate Geometry Attributes Tool can be used for calculating value such as acreage


  • The Tabulate Intersection Tool makes estimations by making apportionments proportional to the areas of split parts of polygons, such as block groups, and assumes that the populations of interest are uniformly distributed by an area within polygons

Chapter 7: Digitizing


  • This section introduced the editing process for existing facets of a GIS map, specifically, the editing of polygon features, by splitting polygons, through the addition of vertex points, and revising them to match existing features such as a building on the World Imagery Basemap. 
  • To move a polygon, use Select and then under the tools section in the Edits tab, choose move to adjust its position
  • To rotate a polygon, select it, click ‘Move’, and then in the Modify Features tab, choose Rotate
  • Vertex points can be added to reflect a building’s true shape. Select by the same steps, but under tools, choose Edit Verticles
  • Polygons can also be split using the “split” tool


  • Point and line feature classes can be created with similar steps
  • Polygon features can be created and deleted
  • Feature classes can be created directly from the Catalog pane and attributes can be added, but the Create Feature Class Tool could instead be used with attributes later added in the attribute table
  • Select and use the “Delete” button under the Edits tab to delete polygons
  • The Trace Tool creates a polygon using parameters like streets as guidelines


  • A useful tool to improve the aesthetic or cartography quality of polygons is the Smooth polygon Tool. 
  • Smoothing Tolerance: A shorter length will result in more detail, but will take longer to process


  • Computer Aided Design (CAD) are commonly used but not geographically referenced to a coordinate system
  • Transforming features in GIS makes aligning CAD drawing to GIS maps easy, regardless of the coordinates and units
  • CAD drawings contain color coded layers. You cannot edit CAD drawings directly, so you have to export them as a feature class by right clicking the polygon in Contents -> Data -> Export Features. The saved polygon will be automatically added to Contents, and the old CAD can be removed
  • The result of exporting a CAD drawing are that the properties of the drawing are added as fields in the attribute table. To alter this, use the Apply Symbology From Layer Tool

Chapter 8: Geocoding


  • Geocoding is a GIS process that matches location fields in tabular data to corresponding fields in existing feature classes. Examples include street addresses + zip codes, or transaction data collected by organizations. 
  • The software uses Algorithms to identify possible incorrect entries for things like misspelled street addresses and attempts to problem solve inconsistencies.
  • The following components are used: Source table, reference data, geocoding tool, locator
  • A geocaching locator is a set of files that stores parameters and other data for the geocoding process. Use the Create Locator Tool. High parameter values allow fewer match errors, while low parameter values allow more match errors. 
  • Geocode Address Tool can be used to use geocode data by zip code

Brock Week 5

Chapter 4:

  • Tutorial 4-1: introduction to working with file geodatabases
  • Tutorial 4-2: Messed up what I removed from the contents pane. Attempted to go back to fix this mistake, but it doesn’t seem like an easy fix
  • Tutorial 4-3: three primary kinds of attribute queries
    • Most fundamental type: addresses the what and when. Often combines several crime types with the use of logical operators
    • Secondary type: adds criteria such as time of day or day of the week 
    • Third type: adds criteria based on the attributes of the people or the objects 
    • SQL button: SQL shows the criteria that the query builder built
  • Tutorial 4-4: introduction to aggregating data with spatial joins
  • Tutorial 4-5: using central point features for polygons
  • Tutorial 4-6:creating a new table for one-to-many join

Chapter 5:

  • Tutorial 5-1: my coordinates were 17oW, 14oN for the western most tip of Africa. Country Senegal. Worked with world map projections
    • The network of lines on the map is called graticule and it has 30-degree intervals east-west and north-south
  • Tutorial 5-2: worked with US map projections
  • Tutorial 5-3: set projected coordinate systems 
  • Tutorial 5-4: worked with vector data formats 
    • Shapefile extensions: .shp, .dbf, .shx
  • Tutorial 5-5: 
  • Tutorial 5:6 I was not able to complete this section because was having a “national outage” or something like that when I tried to access the data

Chapter 6:

  • Tutorial 6-1: dissolving features to create neighborhoods and fire divisions and battalions 
  • Tutorial 6-2: extracting and clipping features for a study area
  • Tutorial 6-3: merging water features 
  • Tutorial 6-4: appending firehouses and police stations to ems facilities 
  • Tutorial 6-5: the “your turn” section data joining deal was not data joining dealing aka not working.
  • Tutorial 6-6: using union on neighboring and land-use features 
  • Tutorial 6-7: using the tabulate intersection tool 

Chapter 7

  • Tutorial 7-1: edited polygon features
  • Tutorial 7-2: created and deleted polygon features. The your turn section was not your turning aka not working
  • Tutorial 7-3: used cartography tools 
  • Tutorial 7-4: transformed feature

Chapter 8

  • Tutorial 8-1: geocoded data using zip codes
  • Tutorial 8-2: geocoded street addresses


Chapter 4: 

I ran into some issues at the beginning of chapter 4. I had no problem making the folder connection and converting the shapefile to a feature class. This main issue began when there was no Tracts feature class under YouthPopulation.gdb. Another issue I ran into was that I did not have Tracts in my content pane. This meant that I had trouble doing the majority of tutorial 4-2. The tutorials afterwards had much less issues. I thought that the select by attributes tools was interesting and a good way to narrow down larger data sets to find exactly what you are looking for. I was really impressed with when the Select by Attributes tool was used to figure out who may have committed the unsolved burglary. Another odd issue I ran into was in tutorial 3, when I changed the burglary symbol to dark red. The points still showed up as a teal color unless I was actively zooming in or out, then they would change to red. This didn’t affect my work, but was odd.

Chapter 5: 

I thought that the ability to change the map from a rectangle to an oval/ more 2D sphere shape was useful. This was done by clicking properties for the map, going to coordinate system, Projected coordinate system, world, and then clicking Hammer-Aitoff(world). I’m curious what the other options under the Projected coordinate system look like. I noticed that looking at some of the zone abbreviations for Ohio cities the zone abbreviation has the state abbreviation(OH for Ohio) and then the letter after it seems to be what part of Ohio ( North, East, South, or West) the city is found. I ran into a few issues in this section but got them figured out. I found that sometimes when I downloaded data into a folder and then tried to open it in Arc, the file and data would not be there so I would have to close and reopen Arc and then I could find the folder with the data I needed to add.

Chapter 6

In this chapter, it introduces new tools like the Pairwise Dissolve tool and the Pairwise Clip tool. The Dissolve tool removes the inner lines from a neighborhood while maintaining the outer boundary. The Clip tool can be used to create street segments that can be added to your study area. I could not figure out how to save the Streets as UpperWestSideStreetsForGeocoding with the Select by Location tool but somehow the streets still ended up getting cut cleanly for the neighborhood. This chapter also uses the merge tool, to merge feature classes into one, and the Append tool, to add features to feature classes that already exist. I thought section 5 was cool where we intersected the Manhattan Fire Company and Manhattan Street feature classes and this allowed us to see what streets were served by which fire station. The Union tool was also introduced which allowed us to combine table data together on the map. This section seemed to go by pretty quickly and gave me fewer issues than the last chapter.

I thought it was cool that you could adjust the outlines of the buildings with the buildings by using the select tool and then move in the edit tab. I had issues getting the lasso tool to just move one point and not the whole polygon, but was able to fix the issue by selecting the stretch proportionally button. This chapter introduces the smooth Polygon tool to make the edges of the polygon more rounded instead of straight segments. 

Chapter 8

I ended up having a lot of trouble with this chapter. I’m not sure if others had a similar issue, but when I was using the Create Locator tool, it would not accept the Output Locator name even when I tried to save it to different places than the book listed. This was an issue because the locator was needed to do the other work in  this chapter. I met with Krygier and we still were unable to figure it out so he told me to skip this chapter.

Delaware Data & Inventory : Map with 3 layers (Parcels, Street Centerlines, and Hydrology)