Mapping helps you decide where things are and how you define objects. This is important to help define patterns or other features that might stand out.
Importance of knowing what you are mapping, asking the right questions and retaining what information is valid and important to the project.
Understanding that everything represents a coordinate that exists at a specific location.
After mapping you can add categories. This will help define the data and group like values.
Mapping the most and the least:
When mapping the most and the least it adds additional features to be able to gather data.
Importance could be used to find locations of business or number of employees in a certain area, this data in turn could be used to find weak spots in coverage etc..
First you would need to know what you are mapping.
Count and amounts are important and understanding ratios or relations between different features.
Then you can choose the type of map you would like to do,
Ranks are a way to put features in order.
Mapping individual values using classes:
Natural Breaks: This helps find groups or patterns
Quantile: All classes have the same number of features
Equal Interval: All cases have the same range of values
Standard deviations: basically all classes are defined by their distance from the mean value of all the features
This is the data that is the high and low values and can skew the data substantially.
One way of dealing with this issue is to put outliers in their own categories.
You could also group them with their closest counterpart.
Once you get all your values then you can map your data:
Pay close attention to colors, symbols, charts. This will make the data easier to read and understand.